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Rapeseed oil machine

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Rapeseed oil machine1. Raw material cleaning of rapeseed oil machine(1) Rapeseed is mixed with sand, soil, stems and leaves, and iron and other impurities duri

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 Rapeseed oil machine

1. Raw material cleaning of rapeseed oil machine

(1) Rapeseed is mixed with sand, soil, stems and leaves, and iron and other impurities during harvesting, drying, transportation and storage. If it is not removed before production, it is very unfavorable to the production process, and the impurities contained in the oil Can be divided into three major categories of inorganic impurities, organic impurities and oil impurities.

1 inorganic impurities Dirt, sand, dust and metal. 2 organic impurities stems and leaves, ropes, husks and other seeds. 3 Oily Impurities Immature grains, dissimilar oils, stipulated broken oil, pest and disease particles below the mesh.

(2) The so-called oil cleaning, that is, the general term for the process of removing the impurities contained in the oil. The process requirements for the clean-up shall not only limit the content of impurities in the oil, but also stipulate the content of the oil in the scraps obtained after the clean-up.

1 Screening: Screening is a method that uses the difference in particle size (width, thickness, and length) between oil and impurities to separate impurities through mesh.

2 Magnetic Separation: Magnetic Separation is a method of using magnetic force to remove magnetic metal impurities in oil.

3 Side-by-side mud cleaning: soil aggregates with the same or similar shape and size as the oilseeds, and the difference in specific gravity and oil content are not very significant. This is called "shoulder mud", especially in rapeseed, where the content of shoulder mud is high. With screening and winnowing equipment can not be effectively removed, must use a special method and equipment.

The

3. Drying of raw material of rapeseed oil machine

Drying of oil refers to the process of dewatering the high-moisture oil to suitable moisture. The oil is sometimes harvested during the rainy season, so the moisture content is high. In order to store safely and make it suitable for moisture, drying is necessary.

Using drying equipment to heat the oil, some of the moisture can be vaporized. At the same time, the humidity in the air surrounding the oil must be less than the surface humidity of the oil at this temperature. In this way, when the humidity difference is formed, the moisture in the oil can continuously vaporize and escape into the air. Atmosphere, and within a unit of time, the greater the amount of air passing through the surface of the oil, the faster the dewatering of the oil, the drying equipment forced into the hot air to dry, is to use this principle. The

4. Crushed raw material of rapeseed oil machine

With mechanical methods, the process of reducing the oil particle size is called crushing. The purpose of crushing is to change the grain size of large-grain oils to facilitate embryo rolling. For pre-squeezed crusts, the size of the crust is moderate and a good oil-out condition is created for leaching or second pressing.

5. Oil softening

Softening regulates the moisture and temperature of the oil, making it soft. Increase the plasticity of the process. In order to meet the requirements for rolling the embryos, softening is essential for oilseeds such as rapeseed and cottonseed, which contain less moisture. For rapeseed, since the moisture content is small and the temperature is not high, rolling the embryo without softening will inevitably produce a lot of powder and it is difficult to meet the requirements.

6. Rapseed oil of rapeseed oil machine

Rolled embryos are also known as "tablets" and "rolls." It is the use of mechanical action, the process of pressing oil into lamellae. The purpose of rolling the embryos is to destroy the cell structure of the oil and create favorable conditions for steaming and frying, so that the oil can be smoothly separated during pressing or leaching.

The basic requirement for rolling the embryos is to make the embryos thin, uniform in surface, less in powder, non-exposed to oil, soft in hand and spread loosely, and the powdered material is controlled under the sieve 1 mm to no more than 10% to 15%. The thickness of the material embryo: rapeseed 0.35 mm or less. After the embryos are rolled, the embryos are heated, so that the moisture content is controlled to about 7%, and the powder content is controlled below 10%.

7. Raw material of rapeseed oil machine is steamed

The frying of oil refers to the process of moistening, heating, steaming of embryos, and frying of embryos to make certain physical and chemical changes occur to the embryos and to change their internal structure and transform the mature embryos.

Steaming is one of the important processes in the oil production process. Because steaming can use the effects of moisture and temperature, the internal structure of the oil changes greatly, such as further destruction of cells, coagulation and denaturation of proteins, segregation and combination of phospholipids and gossypol, and these changes are not only beneficial to fats and oils. It is relatively easy to separate from the oil, and it is conducive to the improvement of the quality of the oil. Therefore, the effect of steaming and frying has a direct impact on the smooth progress of the entire oil production process, the level of oil output, and the quality of oil products and cakes. The

8. Rapeseed oil machine oil extraction

Spiral Oil Press Machine Oil Spiral oil press is an oil press machine that uses power transmission to continuously rotate the embryos in the press cage to pressurize and extract the oil. If the oil extraction plant is used as a pre-extracting plant, a buffer cake bank may be considered between the plant and the leaching plant so that the pre-shred cake can be temporarily stacked when the leaching plant fails.

10. Filter

Another stage of pretreatment is the filtration stage, after which the oil is filtered and refined or leached.

Second, rapeseed oil machine processing equipment refining process

Rapeseed oil is a semi-dry oil containing erucic acid. With the exception of canola oil, rapeseed oils in other varieties contain more erucic acid, accounting for about 26.3% to 57% of the fatty acid composition. High erucic oil is not as nutritious as erucic acid, but it is particularly suitable for industrial oils such as marine lubricants and tires. During the oil production process, mustard glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by the enzyme mustardase to form some sulfur compounds and other toxic components, thus affecting the quality of the oleoresin. The removal rate of sulphides is generally low for the general smelting process, so the edible rapeseed oil should be refined. The

(1) Rapeseed oil refining process

1, coarse vegetable oil refining process

 

2,1 Refined rapeseed salad oil refining process (intermittent)

 

Operating conditions: initial temperature of alkali refining operation temperature is 30-35°C, final temperature is 60-65°C, alkali concentration is 16°Bé, and the amount of excess alkali is 0.2%-0.25% of oil amount, plus 0.5% of oil amount The scolated alkali (concentration is 40° Bé), the neutralization time is around lh, and the sedimentation separation time is not less than 6 h. Alkaline oil refining washing temperature 85 ~ 90 °C, the first pass of washing water is diluted saline alkaline water (alkali concentration of 0.4%, adding oil 0.4% salt), the amount of oil added to 15%. Afterwards, it is washed with hot water several times and washed until the alkali refining oil contains no more than 50 ppm of soap. Decolorization first vacuum dehydration 30 min, temperature 90 °C, the operation of absolute pressure 4.0kPa, and then add activated clay decolorization, white clay added amount of oil 2.5% to 3%, decolorization temperature of 90 ~ 95 °C, decolorization time 20 min, then Cool to below 70 °C filter. The decolorization filter oil is heated to 100°C by the vacuum suction deodorization tank formed by the first and second stage steam injection pumps, and then the third and fourth stage steam injection pumps and atmospheric condenser cooling water are turned on, and the deodorization temperature is not lower than 245°C. The absolute pressure is 260~650Pa, the atmospheric condenser water temperature is controlled at about 30°C, the stripping direct steam pressure is 0.2MPa, the inflow volume is 8~16 kg/t·h, the deodorization time is 3-6 h, and the deodorization is cooled to the end Refilter at 70°C. The

2 Refined rapeseed salad oil refining process (full continuous)

 

Operating conditions: filter oil contains less than 0.2% impurities, alkali concentration 18 ~ 22 ° Bé, the amount of excess alkali is 10% to 25% of the theoretical amount of alkali, and sometimes added 0.05% to 0.20% of the amount of oil The phosphoric acid (concentration is 85%), the de-soap temperature is 70-82°C, the washing temperature is about 95°C, and the amount of soft water added is 10%-20% of the oil amount. Continuous vacuum drying dehydration, temperature 90 ~ 95 °C, operating absolute pressure 2.5 ~ 4.0 kPa. Adsorption decolorization temperature is 105 to 100°C, operation pressure is 2.5 to 4.0 kPa, operation time at decolorization temperature is about 30 minutes, and the amount of activated clay added is 1% to 4% of the oil amount. The filtration temperature when separating the clay using a vertical blade filter is not lower than 100°C. In the decoloring oil, P ≤ 5 ppm, Fe ≤ 0.1 ppm, and Cu ≤ 0.01 ppm. The deodorization temperature is about 240 to 260°C, the absolute pressure is 260 to 650 Pa, the steaming amount of steam is 0.5% to 2%, the deodorization time is 40 to 120 minutes, and the amount of citric acid (concentration is 5%) is 0.02 of the oil amount. % ~ 0.04%, safe filtration temperature is not higher than 70 °C.

(2) The refining and deacidification process of complete set of equipment for processing rapeseed oil

Alkali refining Alkali refining is a refining method that neutralizes free fatty acids with an alkali and removes some of the other impurities at the same time. There are various bases used, such as lime, organic bases, soda ash and caustic soda. The most widely used in China is caustic soda.

Basic Principles of Alkali Smelting The principle of alkaline smelting is the neutralization reaction between alkali solution and free fatty acids in wool oil. The reaction formula is as follows:

RCOOH+NaOH→RCOONa+H2O

In addition to the neutralization reaction, there are some physicochemical effects.

1 Caustic soda can neutralize the free fatty acids in hair oil to make it produce sodium soap (commonly known as soapstock), which is precipitated as an insoluble colloid in oil.

2 soap feet have a strong adsorption capacity. Therefore, a considerable amount of other impurities (such as proteins, mucus, pigments, etc.) are precipitated by their adsorption, and even mechanical impurities are no exception.

3 The free gossypol contained in wool wool reacts with caustic soda to become phenoxide. This phenoxide is more easily adsorbed and precipitated by the soapstock during the alkali refining process, thereby reducing the color of the cotton oil and improving the quality of the refined cotton oil.

The soapstock produced in the alkali refining contains a considerable amount of neutral oil, mainly due to the peptization between the sodium soap and the neutral oil; the neutral oil is encapsulated by the sodium soap; and the soapstock is agglomerated into a floccule. Adsorption of oil.

While neutralizing free fatty acids, neutral oils may also be saponified to increase losses. Therefore, the best conditions must be selected to increase the essential oil rate.

Alkali refining method According to the equipment, there are two kinds of intermittent alkali and continuous alkali refining methods, while the former can be divided into two operating methods of low temperature and high temperature.

(3) Refined desolvation process of complete set of equipment for rapeseed oil processing

Desolvent principle: Because the boiling range of No. 6 solvent oil is wide (60~90°C), its composition is more complicated. Although the solvents in the mixed oil are recovered through evaporation and stripping, the high boiling components remaining in the oil remain Difficult to eliminate, resulting in higher residual leachable oil. The operation of removing the residual solvent in the leaching oil is “desolvation”. The solvent residue in the oil after desolvation should not exceed 50 mg/l. At present, the most widely used methods at home and abroad are steam distillation desolventization methods. The principle is that when water vapor passes through the leachate, the vapor-liquid surface contacts and the water vapor is saturated with the volatilized solvent and escapes at a partial pressure ratio. , so as to remove the solvent in the leaching oil. Because the volatility of solvents and greases varies greatly, steam distillation can remove volatile solvents from the virtually involatile grease. The desolvation is carried out at a higher temperature with a higher vacuum condition, the purpose of which is to increase the volatility of the solvent; to protect the grease from oxidation at high temperatures; to reduce the consumption of steam.

Desolvation process

1 Batch desolvation process

Leaching oil after hydration or alkali refining –→Desolvation→→Cooling→→Product oil

Steps

The first step: start the vacuum pump, make the vacuum degree of the desolvation system stable at about 7000 Pascal, and inhale the leaching oil into the desolventization pot, and the loading volume is about 60% of the pot capacity.

The second step: open indirect steam, raise the oil temperature to 100 °C. A direct steam with a pressure of about 0.1 MPa was introduced to fully turn the grease in the pan and continue to use indirect steam to raise the oil temperature to 140°C. At the same time, the dissolution started.

The third step: depending on the quality of the leaching oil, the desolvation time is generally about 4 hours, during which the oil temperature is kept at 140°C and the vacuum degree is about 8000 Pa.

Step 4: Before the end of the desolvation 0.5 hours, the indirect steam is turned off and the direct steam is turned off when the specified time is reached.

Step 5: After the desolventized oil is passed through a cooler or cooled in a pan to 70°C, break the vacuum and release it as finished oil.

Desolvation equipment

When used for desolvation, it is called a desolventizer. There are other auxiliary equipment, there are W-type mechanical vacuum pump or jet-steam jet pump, atmospheric condenser, air balance tank and liquid foam traps.

(4) Refined decolorization process of complete sets of equipment for rapeseed oil processing

The purpose of decolorization

Various oils come in different colors because they contain different pigments. For example, chlorophyll makes oils dark green; carotene makes oils yellow; during storage, sugars and proteins decompose to make the oil brown; gossypol makes cottonseed oil dark brown.

Decolorization method

Decolorization methods of oils include daylight decolorization (also known as oxidation), chemical decolorization, heating, and adsorption. At present, the most widely used is the adsorption method, that is, some substances with strong adsorption capacity (acid activated clay, bleaching earth and activated carbon, etc.) are added to the grease, and the pigments and other impurities in the oil are removed by adsorption under heating conditions (protein, mucus, Resins, soaps, etc.)

Process flow

Batch decolorization is a process in which the oil and the adsorbent perform a decoloring process through an adsorption equilibrium in an intermittent state.

The decolorized oil is transferred to a decolorization tank through a storage tank, heated and dried in a vacuum, and fully contacted with the adsorbent sucked by the adsorbent tank under stirring to complete the adsorption balance, and then is cooled and pumped by an oil pump into the filter press to separate the adsorbent. The filtered decolorizing oil is transferred to a storage tank and transferred to a deodorizing process by a vacuum suction or an oil pump. The adsorbent filter cake in the filter press is transferred to a processing tank to recover the residual oil.

(5) The refining and deodorization process of complete set of equipment for processing rapeseed oil

The purpose of deodorization

Pure triglyceride is colorless and odorless, but natural oils have their own special smell (also known as odor). The odor is an oxidation product that is further oxidized to produce a peroxy compound that decomposes into aldehydes, thus rendering the oil tasteful. In addition, odors such as solvent, soap, and earthy tastes are also produced during oil production. The process of removing the unique odor (substance) of fats and oils is called "deodorization" of oils and fats.

The deodorization of the leaching oil (called "desolvation" when the process parameters do not reach the deodorization requirement) is very important. Before deodorization, hydration, caustic refining, and decolorization must be performed to create a good deodorization condition, which is beneficial to the residual solvent in the oil and Removal of other odors.

Deodorizing method

There are many deodorization methods, including vacuum steam deodorization, gas blowing, hydrogenation, and polymerization. At present, the most widely used at home and abroad, the best effect is the vacuum steam deodorization method.

The vacuum steam deodorization method is a process of removing the flavoring substances in the oil by using superheated steam (under a vacuum condition) in the deodorizer. The principle of vacuum steam deodorization is that water vapor is saturated with the odor components volatilized out of the fats and oils containing the taste components, vapor-liquid contact, and water vapor, and is removed according to the partial pressure ratio thereof.

(6) Refined dewaxing process of complete sets of equipment for processing rapeseed oil

Wax is a fat of fatty acids and fatty alcohols and is found in various animals and plants. The wax in the grease is a lipid formed from a higher monocarboxylic acid and a higher monohydric alcohol. Wax in plant oils is mainly found in the skin, shells, and cell walls. Waxes can be dissolved in oils at temperatures above 40°C. Therefore, whether oils produced by squeezing or leaching, generally contain a certain amount of wax. Various waxy oils vary widely in wax content. Such as corn germ oil wax content 0.01% ~ 0.04%, sunflower

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 Rapeseed oil machine

1. Raw material cleaning of rapeseed oil machine

(1) Rapeseed is mixed with sand, soil, stems and leaves, and iron and other impurities during harvesting, drying, transportation and storage. If it is not removed before production, it is very unfavorable to the production process, and the impurities contained in the oil Can be divided into three major categories of inorganic impurities, organic impurities and oil impurities.

1 inorganic impurities Dirt, sand, dust and metal. 2 organic impurities stems and leaves, ropes, husks and other seeds. 3 Oily Impurities Immature grains, dissimilar oils, stipulated broken oil, pest and disease particles below the mesh.

(2) The so-called oil cleaning, that is, the general term for the process of removing the impurities contained in the oil. The process requirements for the clean-up shall not only limit the content of impurities in the oil, but also stipulate the content of the oil in the scraps obtained after the clean-up.

1 Screening: Screening is a method that uses the difference in particle size (width, thickness, and length) between oil and impurities to separate impurities through mesh.

2 Magnetic Separation: Magnetic Separation is a method of using magnetic force to remove magnetic metal impurities in oil.

3 Side-by-side mud cleaning: soil aggregates with the same or similar shape and size as the oilseeds, and the difference in specific gravity and oil content are not very significant. This is called "shoulder mud", especially in rapeseed, where the content of shoulder mud is high. With screening and winnowing equipment can not be effectively removed, must use a special method and equipment.

The

3. Drying of raw material of rapeseed oil machine

Drying of oil refers to the process of dewatering the high-moisture oil to suitable moisture. The oil is sometimes harvested during the rainy season, so the moisture content is high. In order to store safely and make it suitable for moisture, drying is necessary.

Using drying equipment to heat the oil, some of the moisture can be vaporized. At the same time, the humidity in the air surrounding the oil must be less than the surface humidity of the oil at this temperature. In this way, when the humidity difference is formed, the moisture in the oil can continuously vaporize and escape into the air. Atmosphere, and within a unit of time, the greater the amount of air passing through the surface of the oil, the faster the dewatering of the oil, the drying equipment forced into the hot air to dry, is to use this principle. The

4. Crushed raw material of rapeseed oil machine

With mechanical methods, the process of reducing the oil particle size is called crushing. The purpose of crushing is to change the grain size of large-grain oils to facilitate embryo rolling. For pre-squeezed crusts, the size of the crust is moderate and a good oil-out condition is created for leaching or second pressing.

5. Oil softening

Softening regulates the moisture and temperature of the oil, making it soft. Increase the plasticity of the process. In order to meet the requirements for rolling the embryos, softening is essential for oilseeds such as rapeseed and cottonseed, which contain less moisture. For rapeseed, since the moisture content is small and the temperature is not high, rolling the embryo without softening will inevitably produce a lot of powder and it is difficult to meet the requirements.

6. Rapseed oil of rapeseed oil machine

Rolled embryos are also known as "tablets" and "rolls." It is the use of mechanical action, the process of pressing oil into lamellae. The purpose of rolling the embryos is to destroy the cell structure of the oil and create favorable conditions for steaming and frying, so that the oil can be smoothly separated during pressing or leaching.

The basic requirement for rolling the embryos is to make the embryos thin, uniform in surface, less in powder, non-exposed to oil, soft in hand and spread loosely, and the powdered material is controlled under the sieve 1 mm to no more than 10% to 15%. The thickness of the material embryo: rapeseed 0.35 mm or less. After the embryos are rolled, the embryos are heated, so that the moisture content is controlled to about 7%, and the powder content is controlled below 10%.

7. Raw material of rapeseed oil machine is steamed

The frying of oil refers to the process of moistening, heating, steaming of embryos, and frying of embryos to make certain physical and chemical changes occur to the embryos and to change their internal structure and transform the mature embryos.

Steaming is one of the important processes in the oil production process. Because steaming can use the effects of moisture and temperature, the internal structure of the oil changes greatly, such as further destruction of cells, coagulation and denaturation of proteins, segregation and combination of phospholipids and gossypol, and these changes are not only beneficial to fats and oils. It is relatively easy to separate from the oil, and it is conducive to the improvement of the quality of the oil. Therefore, the effect of steaming and frying has a direct impact on the smooth progress of the entire oil production process, the level of oil output, and the quality of oil products and cakes. The

8. Rapeseed oil machine oil extraction

Spiral Oil Press Machine Oil Spiral oil press is an oil press machine that uses power transmission to continuously rotate the embryos in the press cage to pressurize and extract the oil. If the oil extraction plant is used as a pre-extracting plant, a buffer cake bank may be considered between the plant and the leaching plant so that the pre-shred cake can be temporarily stacked when the leaching plant fails.

10. Filter

Another stage of pretreatment is the filtration stage, after which the oil is filtered and refined or leached.

Second, rapeseed oil machine processing equipment refining process

Rapeseed oil is a semi-dry oil containing erucic acid. With the exception of canola oil, rapeseed oils in other varieties contain more erucic acid, accounting for about 26.3% to 57% of the fatty acid composition. High erucic oil is not as nutritious as erucic acid, but it is particularly suitable for industrial oils such as marine lubricants and tires. During the oil production process, mustard glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by the enzyme mustardase to form some sulfur compounds and other toxic components, thus affecting the quality of the oleoresin. The removal rate of sulphides is generally low for the general smelting process, so the edible rapeseed oil should be refined. The

(1) Rapeseed oil refining process

1, coarse vegetable oil refining process

 

2,1 Refined rapeseed salad oil refining process (intermittent)

 

Operating conditions: initial temperature of alkali refining operation temperature is 30-35°C, final temperature is 60-65°C, alkali concentration is 16°Bé, and the amount of excess alkali is 0.2%-0.25% of oil amount, plus 0.5% of oil amount The scolated alkali (concentration is 40° Bé), the neutralization time is around lh, and the sedimentation separation time is not less than 6 h. Alkaline oil refining washing temperature 85 ~ 90 °C, the first pass of washing water is diluted saline alkaline water (alkali concentration of 0.4%, adding oil 0.4% salt), the amount of oil added to 15%. Afterwards, it is washed with hot water several times and washed until the alkali refining oil contains no more than 50 ppm of soap. Decolorization first vacuum dehydration 30 min, temperature 90 °C, the operation of absolute pressure 4.0kPa, and then add activated clay decolorization, white clay added amount of oil 2.5% to 3%, decolorization temperature of 90 ~ 95 °C, decolorization time 20 min, then Cool to below 70 °C filter. The decolorization filter oil is heated to 100°C by the vacuum suction deodorization tank formed by the first and second stage steam injection pumps, and then the third and fourth stage steam injection pumps and atmospheric condenser cooling water are turned on, and the deodorization temperature is not lower than 245°C. The absolute pressure is 260~650Pa, the atmospheric condenser water temperature is controlled at about 30°C, the stripping direct steam pressure is 0.2MPa, the inflow volume is 8~16 kg/t·h, the deodorization time is 3-6 h, and the deodorization is cooled to the end Refilter at 70°C. The

2 Refined rapeseed salad oil refining process (full continuous)

 

Operating conditions: filter oil contains less than 0.2% impurities, alkali concentration 18 ~ 22 ° Bé, the amount of excess alkali is 10% to 25% of the theoretical amount of alkali, and sometimes added 0.05% to 0.20% of the amount of oil The phosphoric acid (concentration is 85%), the de-soap temperature is 70-82°C, the washing temperature is about 95°C, and the amount of soft water added is 10%-20% of the oil amount. Continuous vacuum drying dehydration, temperature 90 ~ 95 °C, operating absolute pressure 2.5 ~ 4.0 kPa. Adsorption decolorization temperature is 105 to 100°C, operation pressure is 2.5 to 4.0 kPa, operation time at decolorization temperature is about 30 minutes, and the amount of activated clay added is 1% to 4% of the oil amount. The filtration temperature when separating the clay using a vertical blade filter is not lower than 100°C. In the decoloring oil, P ≤ 5 ppm, Fe ≤ 0.1 ppm, and Cu ≤ 0.01 ppm. The deodorization temperature is about 240 to 260°C, the absolute pressure is 260 to 650 Pa, the steaming amount of steam is 0.5% to 2%, the deodorization time is 40 to 120 minutes, and the amount of citric acid (concentration is 5%) is 0.02 of the oil amount. % ~ 0.04%, safe filtration temperature is not higher than 70 °C.

(2) The refining and deacidification process of complete set of equipment for processing rapeseed oil

Alkali refining Alkali refining is a refining method that neutralizes free fatty acids with an alkali and removes some of the other impurities at the same time. There are various bases used, such as lime, organic bases, soda ash and caustic soda. The most widely used in China is caustic soda.

Basic Principles of Alkali Smelting The principle of alkaline smelting is the neutralization reaction between alkali solution and free fatty acids in wool oil. The reaction formula is as follows:

RCOOH+NaOH→RCOONa+H2O

In addition to the neutralization reaction, there are some physicochemical effects.

1 Caustic soda can neutralize the free fatty acids in hair oil to make it produce sodium soap (commonly known as soapstock), which is precipitated as an insoluble colloid in oil.

2 soap feet have a strong adsorption capacity. Therefore, a considerable amount of other impurities (such as proteins, mucus, pigments, etc.) are precipitated by their adsorption, and even mechanical impurities are no exception.

3 The free gossypol contained in wool wool reacts with caustic soda to become phenoxide. This phenoxide is more easily adsorbed and precipitated by the soapstock during the alkali refining process, thereby reducing the color of the cotton oil and improving the quality of the refined cotton oil.

The soapstock produced in the alkali refining contains a considerable amount of neutral oil, mainly due to the peptization between the sodium soap and the neutral oil; the neutral oil is encapsulated by the sodium soap; and the soapstock is agglomerated into a floccule. Adsorption of oil.

While neutralizing free fatty acids, neutral oils may also be saponified to increase losses. Therefore, the best conditions must be selected to increase the essential oil rate.

Alkali refining method According to the equipment, there are two kinds of intermittent alkali and continuous alkali refining methods, while the former can be divided into two operating methods of low temperature and high temperature.

(3) Refined desolvation process of complete set of equipment for rapeseed oil processing

Desolvent principle: Because the boiling range of No. 6 solvent oil is wide (60~90°C), its composition is more complicated. Although the solvents in the mixed oil are recovered through evaporation and stripping, the high boiling components remaining in the oil remain Difficult to eliminate, resulting in higher residual leachable oil. The operation of removing the residual solvent in the leaching oil is “desolvation”. The solvent residue in the oil after desolvation should not exceed 50 mg/l. At present, the most widely used methods at home and abroad are steam distillation desolventization methods. The principle is that when water vapor passes through the leachate, the vapor-liquid surface contacts and the water vapor is saturated with the volatilized solvent and escapes at a partial pressure ratio. , so as to remove the solvent in the leaching oil. Because the volatility of solvents and greases varies greatly, steam distillation can remove volatile solvents from the virtually involatile grease. The desolvation is carried out at a higher temperature with a higher vacuum condition, the purpose of which is to increase the volatility of the solvent; to protect the grease from oxidation at high temperatures; to reduce the consumption of steam.

Desolvation process

1 Batch desolvation process

Leaching oil after hydration or alkali refining –→Desolvation→→Cooling→→Product oil

Steps

The first step: start the vacuum pump, make the vacuum degree of the desolvation system stable at about 7000 Pascal, and inhale the leaching oil into the desolventization pot, and the loading volume is about 60% of the pot capacity.

The second step: open indirect steam, raise the oil temperature to 100 °C. A direct steam with a pressure of about 0.1 MPa was introduced to fully turn the grease in the pan and continue to use indirect steam to raise the oil temperature to 140°C. At the same time, the dissolution started.

The third step: depending on the quality of the leaching oil, the desolvation time is generally about 4 hours, during which the oil temperature is kept at 140°C and the vacuum degree is about 8000 Pa.

Step 4: Before the end of the desolvation 0.5 hours, the indirect steam is turned off and the direct steam is turned off when the specified time is reached.

Step 5: After the desolventized oil is passed through a cooler or cooled in a pan to 70°C, break the vacuum and release it as finished oil.

Desolvation equipment

When used for desolvation, it is called a desolventizer. There are other auxiliary equipment, there are W-type mechanical vacuum pump or jet-steam jet pump, atmospheric condenser, air balance tank and liquid foam traps.

(4) Refined decolorization process of complete sets of equipment for rapeseed oil processing

The purpose of decolorization

Various oils come in different colors because they contain different pigments. For example, chlorophyll makes oils dark green; carotene makes oils yellow; during storage, sugars and proteins decompose to make the oil brown; gossypol makes cottonseed oil dark brown.

Decolorization method

Decolorization methods of oils include daylight decolorization (also known as oxidation), chemical decolorization, heating, and adsorption. At present, the most widely used is the adsorption method, that is, some substances with strong adsorption capacity (acid activated clay, bleaching earth and activated carbon, etc.) are added to the grease, and the pigments and other impurities in the oil are removed by adsorption under heating conditions (protein, mucus, Resins, soaps, etc.)

Process flow

Batch decolorization is a process in which the oil and the adsorbent perform a decoloring process through an adsorption equilibrium in an intermittent state.

The decolorized oil is transferred to a decolorization tank through a storage tank, heated and dried in a vacuum, and fully contacted with the adsorbent sucked by the adsorbent tank under stirring to complete the adsorption balance, and then is cooled and pumped by an oil pump into the filter press to separate the adsorbent. The filtered decolorizing oil is transferred to a storage tank and transferred to a deodorizing process by a vacuum suction or an oil pump. The adsorbent filter cake in the filter press is transferred to a processing tank to recover the residual oil.

(5) The refining and deodorization process of complete set of equipment for processing rapeseed oil

The purpose of deodorization

Pure triglyceride is colorless and odorless, but natural oils have their own special smell (also known as odor). The odor is an oxidation product that is further oxidized to produce a peroxy compound that decomposes into aldehydes, thus rendering the oil tasteful. In addition, odors such as solvent, soap, and earthy tastes are also produced during oil production. The process of removing the unique odor (substance) of fats and oils is called "deodorization" of oils and fats.

The deodorization of the leaching oil (called "desolvation" when the process parameters do not reach the deodorization requirement) is very important. Before deodorization, hydration, caustic refining, and decolorization must be performed to create a good deodorization condition, which is beneficial to the residual solvent in the oil and Removal of other odors.

Deodorizing method

There are many deodorization methods, including vacuum steam deodorization, gas blowing, hydrogenation, and polymerization. At present, the most widely used at home and abroad, the best effect is the vacuum steam deodorization method.

The vacuum steam deodorization method is a process of removing the flavoring substances in the oil by using superheated steam (under a vacuum condition) in the deodorizer. The principle of vacuum steam deodorization is that water vapor is saturated with the odor components volatilized out of the fats and oils containing the taste components, vapor-liquid contact, and water vapor, and is removed according to the partial pressure ratio thereof.

(6) Refined dewaxing process of complete sets of equipment for processing rapeseed oil

Wax is a fat of fatty acids and fatty alcohols and is found in various animals and plants. The wax in the grease is a lipid formed from a higher monocarboxylic acid and a higher monohydric alcohol. Wax in plant oils is mainly found in the skin, shells, and cell walls. Waxes can be dissolved in oils at temperatures above 40°C. Therefore, whether oils produced by squeezing or leaching, generally contain a certain amount of wax. Various waxy oils vary widely in wax content. Such as corn germ oil wax content 0.01% ~ 0.04%, sunflower

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